Let’s split matter, any matter to the tiniest of particles. At present the standard model of particle physics explains elementary particles like electrons as infinitesimally small point particles but there comes a problem, the magnitude of force between two particles increase with the decrease in the distance of separation between them. So as we go nearer and nearer towards a particle the force keeps on increasing but we won’t be able to bring down the distance of separation to absolute zero as the particle is infinitesimally small. At this point theoretical physicists point out that there is a chance that if we keep on going closer and closer towards the particle at a particular instant the force rises to infinity.
This was seen as a big flaw in the theory but a smart solution is available. That’s where string theory comes in, at present this theory is the number one, or more specifically the only one contender for a Theory of Everything. This theory explains the basic state of matter as strings. A string is a one dimensional object that has a particular length which is said to be the Planck length (thus eliminating the problem of infinitesimals) and all the different elementary particles seen in nature can be explained by different quantum states of these strings caused due to its vibration. These strings have a particular vibration which gives the particle its identity as the energy state of the string changes, its identity changes and by this process string theorists were able to explain almost all the particle decays observed in nature.
Today different types of string theories exist among scientists like the type I string theory, bosonic string theory etc, each of them contains either open strings (strings shaped like a thread), closed strings (strings shaped like a loop) or both. In these theories strings combine and separate according to certain rules.
But at present there is no much experimental support for the string theory but we hope to have great developments in this field in the upcoming years. If it proves to be right then there is no doubt that it can take us on a giant leap in our search for a THEORY OF EVERYTHING.